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World railway development history
Jan 31, 2018

England: the home of the railway.

In 1688, the British bourgeoisie launched the "glorious revolution", announcing the birth of the capitalist system.

The new production relationship liberated the productive forces.

Manual works increasingly sophisticated technical division of labor, simplify each production process to use machine instead of manual labor, the technology of manual workers tend to specialization, this is the invention and application of machine created good conditions.

The industrial revolution began.

The industrial revolution began with the textile industry.

In the textile industry, big machine production gradually obtained the dominant position.

The invention and application of the machine, the steam engine came into being, and then used the steam engine principle to make the steam car running on the road, which is the later car.

Decades later, steam locomotives could be on track.

On September 27, 1825, the world's first permanent public transport facility for steam locomotives, stockton, England, was officially opened to traffic.

The pomp of the opening ceremony, the locomotive, coal water wheel, 32 of 1 passenger cars and truck load of about 90 tons of "travel" train, Stephenson drives by the designer, 9 o 'clock in the morning from Mr Khoja Iraq because of the station, 3 PM 47 points to stockton, ran 31.8 kilometers.

Stockton - the official opening of the darlington railway marks the beginning of modern railway transportation.

The railway, with its advantages of rapid, convenient and economical, is highly regarded by people.

In its birthplace, Britain, it is not necessary to say that building a railway is the most popular and fashionable thing to do.

In the 1850s, it was the height of British railway construction. In 1880, the main lines were basically completed. In 1890, the national railway network was formed, and the total length of the network was 32,000 kilometers.

America: the country with the most railroads.

American railway mileage to the world in the first, the existing domestic railway, 260423 km, including railway is 212742 km and orbit extend the mileage of 354813 kilometers, and the United States has a right to use, not their own built in domestic railway, 23112 km.

The first railway was opened to traffic on May 24, 1830, with a total length of 21 kilometers, from Baltimore to cote d 'allel.

In the 1850s, road building expanded and the 1980s formed a climax.

During the 60 years from 1850 to 1910, more than 370,000 kilometers of railways were built and more than 6,000 kilometers of road were built.

In 1887, the road reached 20,619 kilometers, which was the highest in the history of railway construction.

In 1916, the United States railway business reached a record high of 408,745 kilometers.

But since then, due to the rapid development of other modes of transportation, and other reasons, the continuous removal and closure of lines, the length of the railway lines has been shrinking.

Railways were once called "sunset industries".

The United States railway network consists of six transmissions, a dozen of north and south and more than ten major highways from northeast to southwest, and a large number of branches and local lines.

Existing railways in the United States, Alaska railroad management directly by the state, the national railway passenger transport company (AMTRAK) for the federal government direct management, the joint railway for the federal government and private investment company, other railway are run by private railway companies.

There are more than 6,000 private rail companies, and then in competition or mergers or bankruptcies, to a few hundred.

The American government has carried out many reforms to reverse the difficulties of railway transportation.

For example, congress passed the railway revival and management reform law in 1976.

For railway freight for partial liberalisation, for some railway company reorganization or merger, establishing railway upgrading and debt guarantee fund of funds, local railway line of no profit allocated by the government subsidies, etc.

The implementation of the law has transformed the U.S. rail system in terms of equipment, operations and finance.

In 1980, congress passed the staggs railroad.

The market competition as the most effective business of railway freight and regulators, to relax the control of railway in the management, a certain degree of freedom for railway industry, so that it can operate freely in the transportation market.

For example, the railway is free to adjust the freight to cope with the competition, sign the transportation contract with the shipper, and make the railway industry financial improved and the competitiveness improved.

At present, the market share of the railway industry has stopped declining, and the railway is on the way to revival.

At present, the total length of railway and the distribution of each continent.

, 117 countries and regions around the world now has about 120 km railway, of which the railway more than 20 kilometers, the Russian railway more than 10 kilometers, the China railway reached 70000 kilometers, India, Canada, 60000 kilometers of railway.

Other such as France, Germany, more than 40000 kilometers, more than 30000 kilometers of Argentina, Japan, Italy, Mexico, Brazil, Poland, South Africa and more than 20000 kilometers, the UK, Spain, Sweden, Romania and so on more than 10000 kilometers, 4000 kilometers above the Australia, Hungary, New Zealand, Austria, Finland, Chile, Cuba, Belgium, Bulgaria, Norway, Pakistan, Turkey, Korea, Indonesia, Iran, Egypt, etc.

The proportion of the continents is about 36.

8 percent, Europe 34.

Two percent, Asia 17.

Five percent, seven in Africa.

5 percent, Oceania 4.


The development trend of world railway.

As the main force of land transportation, the railway occupies a monopoly position for more than a century.

But since the beginning of this century, with the rapid development of automobile, aviation and pipeline transportation, the railway has been hit by a new wave.

In order to meet the needs of social and economic development, it is necessary to meet the requirements of cargo owners and passengers - safe, accurate, fast, convenient and comfortable.

National railways have large-scale modern technical innovation, reform of transportation organization work at the same time, the active adoption of new and high technology, the overloading, high-speed transport and information technology has made new breakthrough, coupled with modern management and quality service as well as the regional rail network, intercontinental network, the railway added new vitality, still continue to play a key role in land transportation, occupy the important position in modern transportation means.

The common trend of railway passenger development in various countries is high speed, high density, expansion or use of double-decker buses.

The use of emu and electric locomotive traction passenger train is an important condition to realize passenger speed.

Light rail transit will be favored because it is a vehicle for improving urban traffic environment and vitality.

Suburban railway work closely with subway, light rail, collinear, total station, composed of big cities rapid transit system, this is effective measures to solve the population density area larger passenger is busy.

In the future railway development, the rapid transit system of big cities will be connected with the national railway network, and will be closely coordinated to form a unified transport network for passenger transportation.

In the aspect of freight transportation, centralization, unitization and bulk cargo transportation are the common trend of railway development.

Overloaded vehicle train is with the same type unit, fixed marshalling, fixed line cycle, first used in coal transportation, later extended to other bulk goods, to increase capacity, reduce fuel consumption, save operating vehicle, will stand and cabin crew has significant effect and economic benefit is very big, such as the railway freight volume is 60% completed by unit train this way.

Russia has experimented with a super-long heavy train with a weight of 4,3407 tons, which is made up of 440 cars.

5 km, pulled by 4 electric locomotives, the scene is very spectacular.

The train performance of modern railways has become the limit of energy and maintenance costs.

The speed of passenger trains is bound by safety, and the weight of freight trains has reached the limit of the bridge and line.

The software revolution of railway is to improve the management and control, which can make the railway technical equipment more efficient.

The information system composed of electronic computer, optical fiber and digital technology will change the relationship between traditional communication and signal fields.

The trend of development is to replace the current electrical - mechanical interlocking with computer interlocking.

In addition, the automatic alignment of the route can optimize the operation of the dense train and free the dispatcher from the limitation of the speed and capacity of the human brain.

On the electrified railway, the highest electricity consumption control technology is adopted, which is to automatically cut off the heating and other electricity at the peak, so as to ensure normal traction power.

At present, most of the electrified railways in Japan and Western Europe adopt the telemetry system.

The development process of this system is: from the junction of relay system, to the non-contact semiconductor electronic system, until the electronic computer control system.

On the hardware side, countries are strengthening the technological transformation of railway rolling stock.

With the emergence of alternative fuel of internal combustion engine car, to the traditional internal combustion engine car engine to optimize is inevitable, at present, most of the electric locomotive adopts the direct current series motor, the motor despite good traction, but prone to idling.

The adoption of ac electric locomotive is the development direction.

For cargo vehicles, in addition to the use of large goods vehicles, in order to reduce the weight of the truck, increase the axle load or increase the number of shafts and so on.

For passenger cars, in order to achieve the purpose of high-speed development, the emphasis is on developing light vehicles.

The structure of the bogie and the structure of the vehicle are all developing towards light weight.

With the constantly emerging of the new material, resistance to atmospheric corrosion of weathering steel, galvanized steel and other metal materials, glass fiber reinforced plastic, polyurethane foam, polymeric material such as synthetic fiber cloth, and precision ceramic materials, and optical fiber, superconducting materials are gradually in railway locomotive vehicles, containers, lines, tunnels, Bridges, communications and catenary and so on various aspects widely adopted.

It is foreseeable that, with the development and application of high technology, the railway will be rejuvenated again.