• Follow us
Home > Knowledge > Content
The type of railway equipment
Jan 11, 2018


Railway equipment is the important equipment of railway, rail is the main symbol of railway equipment.

A - rail high B - base width C - head width D - waist thick.

(1) classification.

The weight of the steel rail in kilograms per meter can be divided into two types: heavy rail and light rail.

Heavy rail.

According to the steel type of steel used, it is divided into: ordinary manganese steel rail, copper carbon steel rail, high silicon steel rail, copper rail, manganese track, silicon rail, etc.

There are 38, 43 and 50kg.

In addition, there are 45kg tracks on a few lines, which are planned to be used in the 60kg tracks on the high-volume and high-speed lines.

The technical conditions of China's 38-50kg /m rail are stipulated in gb2585-81.

(2) the light rail.

There are 9, 12, 15, 22, 30, etc.

With the rail type.

(2) manufacture and use.

The steel rail is made of carbon - composed steel rolling with an open hearth furnace and oxygen converter.

Its purpose is to bear the operating pressure and impact load of rolling stock.

(3) production plant and importing country.

China's current steel rail, mainly domestic steel production, such as angang, wuhan, and so on.

In addition, due to the large amount of consumption, it is necessary to import some of the physical and chemical properties required by our country's technical standards and the steel rail and rail accessories determined according to foreign standards.

Japan, Germany, France, Britain, Russia, Australia, etc.

2. Dimensions

The length of the rail and other geometric dimensions and tolerances shall be specified by the relevant standards in "8".

3. Appearance quality

(1) the steel rail after rolling shall be straight, and shall not be significantly bent and twisted.

For the local bending and torsion of the light weight rail and its correction deformation, the inclination of the rail end face should not exceed the standard.

(2) the rail surface shall be clean and smooth, and no cracks, scarring and scratches shall be allowed.

The end face must not have the shrinkage mark and the interlayer and so on.

The degree of defects and geometric quantities allowed in the overall surface of the light and light rail shall not exceed the standard.

Rail brace

In the rail component, the parts that are installed on the outside of the rail in order to effectively combat the transverse force of the wheel rail.

The rail support is generally installed on the outside of the rail outside the small radius curve, so as to prevent the train passing through the curve, too large transverse force causes the lateral displacement of the rail to be too large, and even causes the steel rail to overturn.

Common rail support is used for the wooden pillow track more.

In most of the rail, the rail support is also installed on the outside of the basic rail to improve the transverse stiffness of the rail, and the shape of the rail support is more.

Rail support type:

Adjustable rail brace: an adjustable rail brace by the adjustable rail brace subject, adjustable rail brace rack chassis, rail brace washer and nylon gaskets of rail brace base, its characteristic is that the adjustable rail brace the base of the rack and rack Angle of 12 ° ~ 15 °, the blade pitch for 10-15 mm.

Elastic rail brace: rail brace design mainly set in the basic rail, guide rail curve rail switch and guard rails and other non-working side, double side rail double pay points of switch rail is set rail brace.

The rail support in the switch is mainly to prevent the steel rail capsizing and gauge expansion and ensure the stability of the rail.

Anti climb rail brace: it includes basic rail, plate, bifurcation pillow bolt, frog pillow, basic rail body along the long interval with hole, anti climb rail brace through bolts, locknut connected to a basic course, anti climb rail brace on either side of the jaw card on both sides of the plate, plate through bifurcation with bifurcation pillow pillow bolt connection.

Advantages: not only can effectively limit the longitudinal position of the basic rail, prevent the relative displacement of the basic rail and the bifurcated pillow, but also ensure the stability of the switch structure and the high smoothness of the switch.


When the train is running, the longitudinal forces acting on the rails are often produced to make the rails move longitudeally and sometimes even to move the sleeper.

This vertical movement is called crawling.

Crawling generally occurs in the redirection of the railway line, the single-line railway, and the braking range of the road and the station.

Line creep is often caused by uneven rail seam, the deviation of the sleeper and so on, which is very destructive to the line, and even causes the small rise track, which endangers the safety of driving.

Therefore, effective measures must be taken to prevent crawling, usually using anti-creeper and anti-climber to prevent the line from crawling.

The pin type anti-creeper is made up of the wearing pin of the track card with baffle.

At the time of installation, one side of the rail card is on the bottom of the track, and the other side is wedged into the pin so that the whole anti-creeper is firmly stuck to the bottom of the rail.

In this way, when the rail is subjected to longitudinal resistance, because the rails of the rail clamp is close to the sleeper, the sleeper and the road are ordered to prevent the rail from crawling.

In order to give full play to the role of the anti-climber, it is usually necessary to install the anti-climbing support between the sleeper, connecting the 3-5 sleeper sleeper, and jointly resisting the steel rail crawling.


The sleeper should support both the rail and the position of the rail, and transfer the heavy pressure of the rail to the ballast bed.

It must be flexible and elastic, hard and soft.

When the train passes, it can be properly deformed to cushion the pressure, but it has to be restored as soon as possible after the train.

The sleeper includes a wooden pillow and a concrete sleeper.

Wood sleeper a sleeper made from wood.

Also known as pillow wood, anti - corrosion wood pillow, also known as oil pillow.

Wooden pillows are made of tough, resilient wood.

Wooden pillow can be divided into common wooden pillow, fork pillow, bridge pillow.

Ordinary wooden sleeper standard length is 2. 5 m, its profile is divided into two categories, the I, Ⅱ, for different levels of lines.

It is used for the bifurcated pillow on the turnout, and its section is wider than the wooden pillow, with a length ranging from 2600mm to 4800mm, with a total of 12 types, each of which is 20mm in length, and is selected according to the actual width of the turnout.

Used for bridge pillow, its section size varies with the center spacing of main girder (or longitudinal beam).

The wooden pillow has the advantages of good elasticity, easy to process and easy to use.

Since the railway, wooden pillow is the main type of sleeper.

However, due to the reasons of the materials, the elastic, strength and durability of the wooden pillow are not uniform enough, which will increase the dynamic effect of the rail and use a lot of high-quality wood.

The service life of wooden pillow is short, its failure reason is a lot of, mainly is rotten, mechanical wear and crack.

The wooden pillow is embalmed because it is perishable.

The unembalmed wooden pillow is called a vegetarian pillow.

China's timber resources are scarce and expensive, and have gradually been replaced by concrete pillows on main highways.

2, concrete sleeper, including thread spike structure, reinforcement, fasteners and adjustment of gauge, height adjustment, whose character is: shoulder concrete heightening, gauge apron thickening, rubber plate thickening, in the concrete sleeper by vertical staggered arrangement is decorated with spiral ribbed bars, at the end of block shoulder position configuration shear reinforcement, the damper with concrete sleeper shoulder grooves on both ends anastomosis, gauge apron with baffle block cipher.

3, railway parts of concrete sleeper pillow, pillow, also known as concrete after the second world war, concrete sleeper started using, a lot of concrete sleeper has the advantage of good stability, long service life, maintenance and upkeep provinces;

The concrete pillow has the disadvantages of large weight, elastic and insulating property, and the cushioning insulation cushion should be set in the bottom part of the rail.

The connection parts

The parts are divided into two parts, and the parts connected with two rail ends are called joint connection parts.

The part that connects the rail and sleeper is called the intermediate connection part, which is the fastener.

The joint connects the parts so that the wheels can roll over the rail joint smoothly and keep the two rails in coordination.

The fastener combines the rail and the sleeper into an orbital frame to keep the two rails in the correct position;

The fastener provides enough pressure to prevent the rail from overturning and to prevent the rail from moving vertically.

Ballast bed

The bed usually refers to the sleeper under the sleeper.

Ballast (ballast).

The main function is to support the sleeper, and to distribute the huge load from the upper part of the sleeper to the roadbed, which greatly reduces the deformation of the roadbed.

Ballast is 20 ~ 70 mm diameter small block of granite, block and block and the friction between the gap, make orbit has certain elasticity, the elastic can not only absorb shock and vibration of locomotive vehicle, make the train running smoothly, and greatly improve the locomotive vehicles, rail, sleeper components such as working conditions, prolong the service life.

When the elasticity of ballast is lost, the load on the reinforced concrete sleeper will be increased by 50~80%.


A switch is a line connecting equipment that transfers a locomotive from one track to another, usually in a large number of stations and marshalling stations.

With a switch, the ability to pass the line can be fully realized.

Even if it is a single line of railway, laying a fork and building a fork that is larger than the length of the train, you can turn on the train.