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The structure of railway tracks
Feb 01, 2018

The track consists of a bed, a sleeper, a rail, a connecting part, an anti-climbing device and a switch.

First cast for rail tracks, and for the development of i-section rail, in the 1980 s, the world's most railway USES standard gauge (see railway track geometry) is 1435 mm (4 feet 8 (1/2) inch).

Narrower than this narrow gauge railway, the wider railway (see railway engineering).

The bed is laid directly on the roadbed, and the ballast is made of gravel, pebbles, slag and other materials.

Rail, sleeper, and ballast are materials of different mechanical properties that are combined in different ways.

In general, the bottom of the track is the ballast bed, which provides the elastic and drainage function for the track.

Rails can also be laid on a concrete base (which is quite common on Bridges) and even embedded in concrete.

The sleeper is buried in a ballast bed, usually horizontal, with wood, reinforced concrete or steel.

The rail is fastened to the track by connecting the parts.

Ballast is laid on the roadbed, under the sleeper, to hide the object of the sleeper.

It can be divided into two layers according to the laying position, the top layer is the top layer slag, the lower layer is the bottom sediment.

The function of the dregs is as follows: 1. To bear the pressure of the sleeper, and distribute the pressure evenly on the roadbed.

2. Fix the position of the sleeper and maintain the correct line and slope of the track.

3. Eliminate the rain water around the sleeper and prevent the soil of the roadbed from being deformed by moisture.

4. Increase the elastic force of the track, so that the rail track of the train can quickly return to the correct position.

Prevent tracks from growing weeds.

In order to reduce the maintenance of the slag and improve the strength of the roadbed, the modern orbital engineering is called the trackless track with concrete foundation instead of the dregs, the sleeper and the roadbed.

Can reduce maintenance time, maintain good quality and driving safety.

The rail is built for the rolling wheel of the train, and its main functions are as follows: 1. Bear the pressure and wear of the wheel.

2. Place the wheel under the rails under the steel rail.

Suffer from repeated stress.

Regardless of the weight of the rail, the proportion of section quality should be: 42 percent of the head, 21 percent of the waist, 37 percent of the bottom, and the height of the rail should be equal to the width of the bottom.

When the rail head is worn to 0.64cm, it is necessary to change the rail immediately.

The role of railway rail spike is to attach the rail link to the rail and maintain the fixed gauge between the two rails. The most common rail spike is the common spike, the hook spike and the spiral spike.

The joint of rail joint is to maintain the strength and stiffness of the joint, so that the rail has uniform elasticity.

Generally, two fishtail plates are attached to the waist of the rail, and the bolts with spring washer are tightened.

The fishtail plate is 60 centimeters and 90 centimeters, and USES 60 centimeters to rotate with 4 bolts, and 90 centimeters to use 6 bolts.

Modernization orbit to completely improve the disadvantages of rail joint, take continuous welding way, with the continuous welded rail instead of rail joint, so as to reduce the maintenance work of orbit, and can increase the use fixed number of year, this is called long welded rails.

The rail support is used to support the lateral side of the rail to resist the lateral force of the steel rail head and prevent the rail from loosening due to the inclination of the rail.

The fastener is embedded with the metal clip or handle on the bottom of the rail, except for the vertical rolling and lateral thrust of the wheel, which can also prevent the steel rail from moving vertically.

Installed in under the rail to the side to resist sleeper (and mat coin), in addition to prevent the rail because the wheels roll caused by longitudinal crawling, and can control an extension of the rail due to temperature rise phenomenon.

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